Special Olympics Cross Country Skiing


Ball Clubs Double Rings (men only) Hoop Ribbon Rope Stick (men only)


Competitions are split between juniors (under 16) and seniors (16 and over). All routines are performed on a carpeted 14 x 14-meter square surface. Gymnasts can be awarded a maximum of 20 points for each apparatus. A maximum of 10 points each are given for execution, artistic and difficulty. The artistic and difficulty scores are then added together and divided by 2. This score is added to the execution score to produce a composition. The group or individual with the highest score at the end of competition is the winner.


Rhythmic Gymnastics is a type of gymnastics where participants manipulate apparatus such as the rope, hoop, ball and ribbon. It combines elements of ballet and theatrical dance. Developed in the 19th century, rhythmic gymnastics combines elements of ballet, gymnastics, theatrical dance and apparatus manipulation. Apparatus includes bals, clubs, hoops and ribbons. Scores are determined by a panel of judges who give points for execution, artistic merit and difficulty.


Rhythmic gymnastics was developed in France in the 19th century, as a way to express one's self and exercise various body parts. It was further developed in Sweden, which at the time, was a proponent of aesthetic gymnastics. In 1929 the Medau School was opened in Berlin, as a training ground for modern gymnastics. It was here that the use of apparatus, the signature aspect of rhythmic gymnastics, was developed. Competitive rhythmic gymnastics begin in the Soviet Union in the 1940's. It was recognized by the International Federation of Gymnastics (FIG) in 1961. The first world championship was held in Budapest in 1963. Individual competition was added to the Summer Olympics in 1984, with group competition added in 1996. Today, rhythmic gymnastics is practiced all around the world, with the highest form of competition still found in the Summer Olympics.