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Rugby is usually played on a 120-meters long by 70-meters wide field. H-shaped goal posts are placed at the center of the goal line. Matches last for 80 minutes, with a brief halftime. Teams with the ball attempt to move it towards the opposition's goal line. When advances are stopped with a tackle, teams form a ruck to win possession of the ball. When tackled, players must pass or release the ball, allowing the opposition to contest possession. The ball may be advanced by kicking or passing. Forward passes are not allowed. Blocking is not allowed. Play continues until a rule infringement or the ball carrier leaves the field. Points are awarded for scoring a try or kicking a goal. A try, worth 5 points, is scored when the attacking team carries the ball over the opposition's goal line. Goals are scored by kicking the ball over the opposition's crossbar. Goals can be scored through a dropped kick, penalty goal or conversion. Penalty and dropped goals are worth 3 points, while conversions are worth 2 points.
Rugby is a team sport where competitors advance a spherical ball up a large field, while avoiding contact with the opposing team. Teams score points by taking the ball across the goal line or by kicking it through uprights. Rugby began at a 19th century English prep school, when a player picked up a football and began running with it. This led to the formalization of rules and the formation of amateur teams. Game play consists of two teams attempting to move an oblong ball towards each other's goal line. Crossing the goal line, a try, results in 5 points, while kicking the ball through the uprights results in 3 points. The team with the most points at the end of 80 minutes is the winner.
Physical games involving the carrying of a ball were played in the British Isles as far back as the Bronze Age. These games influenced a style of football played at the English prep school, Rugby School. Until 1823, players were allowed to handle the ball, but not run with it. This changed when William Webb Ellis broke the rules by picking up the ball and running with it. This new style of play contributed to the game's explosion in popularity. By 1845 the first official Rugby rules were written. In 1871 the English Rugby Union was established with 17 amateur clubs. A number of teams from northern England broke away in 1895, out of a desire to play to professionally. The teams went on to form the Rugby Football League. In 1948 the International Rugby Board was established to govern both Rugby Union and Rugby League. Today rugby is a major international sport, played in dozens of countries around the world.