When a quarter begins, or after a goal is scored, play begins from the center of the court with a "center pass". These passes alternate between the teams, regardless of which team scored the last goal. A center pass is passed and taken by the Center player, who must have one foot grounded within the center circle. As the game restarts, only the Center player from each team can be in the center third. When the umpire blows the whistle to restart play, the Goal Attacks, Goal Defenses, Wing Attacks and Wing Defenses move into the center third, and the center pass must be taken by someone who lands within the center third of the court when they receive the pass. If the ball is not received in the center third then the opposition receives a "free pass" where the ball was received in the area of infringement. If the ball leaves the court boundaries, then a member of the team that did not touch the ball last restarts play by making a pass from the court lining back into play.
Special Olympics Netball is netball with competitors that have physical or mental disabilities. Special Olympics Netball is considered a "recognized" sport, or a sport that isn't part of official competition, but still must adhere to Special Olympics rules and guidelines. Netball is a non-contact generally indoor sport similar to, and derived from, basketball. It is usually known as a woman's sport. The Special Olympics form of netball is meant for athletes with physical or mental disabilities. Netball teams may include up to 12 players, but only seven may take the court at any one time. Each player has a playing position determined by the areas on the court where they may move. The playing positions are shown by identification letters worn above the waist, on both the front and the back of the player.
Netball traces its roots to basketball. Basketball was devised in 1891 by James Naismith for his students in the School for Christian Workers. Female teachers got curious and started to formulate a version for girls. The outfits of women at this time hindered them from effectively executing important basketball moves such as running and dribbling, so the game had to be modified to accommodate these restrictions. In 1895, Clara Baer, a gym teacher from New Orleans, asked Naismith for a copy of the basketball rules. Baer identified Naismith's unclear pencil markings showing the areas players should best patrol as the areas within which women players could move, and consequently introduced the "zoning areas" of today. This was the start of netball?s formalization. These zoning rules, along with many other provisions (such as elimination of the dribbling rule), were all included in the first draft of Rules for Woman?s Basketball. In 1901, this set of rules was ratified and netball officially became a competitive sport. However, it was several years before regular competitions were held. In 1995 it became a recognized Olympic sport.